The progressive development of folds by buckling in single isolated viscous layers compressed parallel to the layering and embedded in a less viscous host is examined in several ways; by use of experiments, an analogue model to simulate simultaneous buckling and flattening and by an application of finite-element analysis. The appearance of folds with a characteristic wavelength in an initially flat layer occurs in the experiments for viscosity ratios ( μlayer μhost = μ1 μ2) of between 11 and 100; progressive fold development after the initial folds have appeared is similar in the experiments and in the finite-element models. Except for the finite-element model for μ1 μ2 = 1,000 layer-parallel shortening occurs in the early stages of folding and a stage is reached where little further changes in arc length occur. The amount of layer-parallel shortening increases with decreasing viscosity contrast, and becomes relatively unimportant after the folds have attained limb dips of about 15°-25°. Thickness variations with dip are only significant here for the finite-element model with μ1 μ2 = 10, and in experiments for μ1 μ2 = 5 where the layer is initially in the form of a moderate-amplitude sine wave. The variations range from a parallel to a near-similar fold geometry, and in general depend on the viscosity contrast, the degree of shortening and the initial wavelength/thickness ratio. They are very similar to the variations predicted by the analogue model of combined buckling and flattening. The difference between the thickness/dip variations in a fold produced by buckling at low viscosity contrast and one produced by flattening a parallel fold is marked at high limb dips and very slight at low limb dips. Many natural folds in isolated rock layers or veins show thickness/dip relationships expected for a flattened parallel fold, and some show relationships expected for buckling at low viscosity contrasts. Studies of the wavelength/thickness ratios in natural folds have suggested that competence contrast is often low. Many folds in isolated rock layers or veins whose geometry may vary between parallel and almost similar, and may be indistinguishable from those of flattened parallel folds, have probably developed by a process of buckling at low viscosity contrasts.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank J.G. Ramsay and H. Rambergf or critically readingt he manuscript. Part of this work was supportedb y the SwedishB oard for Technical Development under contract 70-135/U797.