Latent constructs identified in older individuals who smoke cigarettes and are eligible for lung cancer screening: Factor analysis of baseline data from the PLUTO smoking cessation trial

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Abstract

Introduction: Lung cancer screening (LCS) combined with smoking cessation intervention is currently recommended for older individuals with a history of heavy smoking. Tailoring tobacco treatment for this patient population of older, people who smoke (PWS) may improve cessation rates while efficiently using limited smoking cessation resources. Although some older people who smoke will need more intensive treatment to achieve sustained abstinence, others may be successful with less intensive treatment. A framework to identify them a priori would be helpful to distribute smoking cessation resources accordingly. Methods: Baseline demographic, smoking, and health data are reported from a randomized clinical trial of longitudinal smoking cessation interventions delivered in the setting of LCS. Candidate variables were factor analyzed to identify latent factors, or constructs, to identify subgroups of older participants among the heterogenous population of older people who smoke. Results: We identified three factor-derived constructs: self-reported health status, heaviness of smoking, and nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence was moderately correlated with both of the other two factors. Conclusions: This factor analysis of baseline participant characteristics identified a set of latent constructs – based on a few practical clinical variables – that can be used to classify the heterogenous population of older people who smoke to identify. We propose this framework to identify subgroups of people who smoke who might successfully quit with less intense treatment at the time of lung cancer screening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100977
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Volume29
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
In 2013, the NIH announced a request for proposals to fund clinical trials studying smoking cessation in the setting of LCS. The Program for Lung Screening and Tobacco Treatment study (PLUTO, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02597491), part of the National Cancer Institute Smoking Cessation at Lung Examination (SCALE) collaboration [25], has completed participant enrollment. We report here baseline demographic, smoking, and health data of the PLUTO sample. We assessed a comprehensive set of data including personal smoking history, prior quit attempts, risk perceptions, measures of nicotine dependence and withdrawal, smoking urges, pain, alcohol use, social support, measures of depression and anxiety, and medical co-morbidities. The objective of this analysis is to identify variables that describe latent factors to characterize older PWS cigarettes and are eligible for LCS.This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute (R01CA196873 and 2T32CA163184), National Institutes of Health. This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Minneapolis VA HSR&D Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, or the United States government.

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute ( R01CA196873 and 2T32CA163184 ), National Institutes of Health . This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Minneapolis VA HSR&D Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, or the United States government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

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