A possible parasitoid-evasion behavioral adap" tation is examined in male field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, from three Hawaiian islands where parasitoid prevalence varies naturally among islands. Ormia ochracea, the parasitoid fly that parasitizes T. oceanicus on these islands, uses male calling song to locate its hosts. We used laboratory-reared males from three Hawaiian islands to determine if there are population differences in the time it takes for calling males to resume calling after a standardized disturbance. Males follow the expected pattern; males from the island with the greatest risk of parasitism have the longest latency to resume calling, and males from the island with the least risk of parasitism have the shortest latency to resume calling. Results are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to differing parasitism levels, and trade-offs between natural and sexual selection.
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Acknowledgements We are grateful to the students who help maintain the cricket colonies. M.Z. was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and from the Academic Senate of the University of California, Riverside, Calif. J. Calkins, S.N. Gershman, S.P. Scott, and A.M. Stoehr made useful comments on a previous version of the manuscript. The experiments described in this paper comply with the current laws of the United States of America.
- Calling song
- Ormia ochracea
- Risk aversion
- Teleogryllus oceanicus