BACKGROUND: Experimental studies demonstrate that high aortic pressure in late systole relative to early systole causes greater myocardial remodeling and dysfunction, for any given absolute peak systolic pressure.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that late systolic hypertension, defined as the ratio of late (last one third of systole) to early (first two thirds of systole) pressure-time integrals (PTI) of the aortic pressure waveform, independently predicts incident heart failure (HF) in the general population. Aortic pressure waveforms were derived from a generalized transfer function applied to the radial pressure waveform recorded noninvasively from 6124 adults. The late/early systolic PTI ratio (L/E(SPTI)) was assessed as a predictor of incident HF during median 8.5 years of follow-up. The L/E(SPTI) was predictive of incident HF (hazard ratio per 1% increase=1.22; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.29; P<0.0001) even after adjustment for established risk factors for HF (HR=1.23; 95% CI=1.14 to 1.32: P<0.0001). In a multivariate model that included brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure and other standard risk factors of HF, L/E(SPTI) was the modifiable factor associated with the greatest improvements in model performance. A high L/E(SPTI) (>58.38%) was more predictive of HF than the presence of hypertension. After adjustment for each other and various predictors of HF, the HR associated with hypertension was 1.39 (95% CI=0.86 to 2.23; P=0.18), whereas the HR associated with a high L/E was 2.31 (95% CI=1.52 to 3.49; P<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Independently of the absolute level of peak pressure, late systolic hypertension is strongly associated with incident HF in the general population.
- arterial hemodynamics
- heart failure
- late systolic load
- left ventricular afterload