Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 and associated factors

Taha E. Taha, Donald R. Hoover, Newton I. Kumwenda, Susan A. Fiscus, George Kafulafula, Chiwawa Nkhoma, Shu Chen, Estelle Piwowar, Robin L. Broadhead, Brooks Jackson, Paolo G. Miotti

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56 Scopus citations


Background. The present study was undertaken to determine the risk and timing of late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Methods. Breast-fed infants previously enrolled in 2 trials of antiretroviral prophylaxis were monitored in Malawi. Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazard models assessed cumulative incidence and association of factors with LPT. Results. Overall, 98 infants were HIV infected, and 1158 were uninfected. The cumulative risk of LPT at age 24 months was 9.68% (95% confidence interval, 7.80%-11.56%). The interval hazards at 1.5-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 months were 1.22%, 4.05%, 3.48%, and 1.27%, respectively. Conclusions. The risk of LPT beyond 6 months is substantial. Weaning at 6 months could prevent >85% of LPT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-14
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received 9 October 2006; accepted 23 January 2007; electronically published 24 May 2007. Potential conflicts of interest: none reported. Presented in part: XVI International AIDS Conference, 15 August 2006, Toronto, Canada (abstract TUPE0337). Financial support: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health (AIDS FIRCA award 5R03TW01199 and supplement); Doris Duke Charitable Foundation; Gustav Martin Innovative Research Fund of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; discretionary fund of the HIV Prevention Trials Network, Division of AIDS, National Institutes of Health (grant U01 A148005). Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Taha E. Taha, Rm. E7138, Dept. of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD, 21205 (


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