Mammalian cell culture continues to draw major research efforts. A great deal of progress has recently been made in cellular physiology, especially in factors adversely affecting cell growth or viability. Through molecular genetic manipulation, cells are more readily cultivated in a medium free of animal proteins. Achieving a high cell concentration and high viability continue to be common themes in engineering research. The need to implement a control policy for fed-batch and perfusion cultures has prompted increased efforts in process monitoring and control. Integrating these advances will be beneficial for ensuring product quality and process consistency.