Laparoscopically implanted tissue expander radiotherapy in canine transitional cell carcinoma

Sean Murphy, Alonso Gutiérrez, Jessica Lawrence, Dale Bjorling, Thomas Mackie, Lisa Forrest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Organ motion and injury to adjacent structures limit curative treatment of intraabdominal tumors with external beam radiotherapy. We evaluated the use of Laparoscopically Implanted Tissue Expander Radiotherapy (LITE-RT) to exclude critical structures during irradiation of the urinary bladder in two dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) using helical tomotherapy. Dogs had histologically confirmed bladder TCC with no metastasis. A custom-shaped tissue expander was placed between the colon and bladder laparoscopically in one dog and during laparotomy in the other. The prescribed radiation dose was 45 Gy to 98% volume of the bladder in 18 fractions of 2.5 Gy. Tumor response and normal tissue effects were monitored with cystoscopy and colonic biopsies before treatment and 3, 6, and 15 months after treatment. Based on treatment plans from inflated vs. deflated tissue expander CT images, there was a mean dose reduction to the colon of 53% and 31% for the two dogs. Interfractional target repositioning was possible by using volumetric megavoltage computed tomography helical tomotherapy. Both dogs had no clinical signs of chronic colitis but did experience mild cystitis during treatment. Tissue expanders became detached, requiring an additional surgery for reattachment, in both dogs. One dog developed a fibrous adhesion resulting in bladder rupture during inflation, which necessitated early device removal. One dog was euthanized for tumor-associated ureteral obstruction at 8 months while the other is alive at 21 months. We conclude that LITE-RT shows promise in treatment of canine bladder TCC due to lack of acute colitis and enteritis. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2008, pp 400-405.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)400-405
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Canine bladder cancer
  • IMRT
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Tissue expander
  • Tomotherapy


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