Language

Marta Kutas, Robert Kluender, Chris Barkley, Ben Amsel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

HISTORICAL CONTEXT With the onset of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, language came into focus as one of the main puzzles of human cognition, given that, at least prima facie, it is a behavioral phenomenon not found in any other species, and yet one which virtually every human child - even those with severe disabilities in other cognitive domains - acquires at a relatively early age. This is what motivated Noam Chomsky to look for general underlying - and presumably innate - principles governing human language development. This in turn inspired a broader nativist movement within the cognitive sciences that held sway for most of the latter half of the twentieth century. Thanks to the cognitive revolution and the European and American schools of linguistic structuralism that preceded it, we know a fair amount about the intrinsic organizational principles and implementational mechanisms of language. We know that language is a multilayered system, with principles that apply at different levels of organization: sound, the word, the phrase and the sentence, the entire text, be it written or spoken, and meaning. We further know that as a serialized signal that unfolds sequentially in time and space, language must rely on the support of motor, perceptual, and cognitive systems, including attention and memory, both working and long-term. Yet it is challenging to adumbrate the historical context for language research fully at this time, because the field is in the midst of a Kuhnian paradigm shift whose outcome remains uncertain. The interplay of linguistic principles, levels of organization, and mechanisms lies at the heart of several related but logically independent issues within linguistics and psycholinguistics commonly referred to as psychological reality, competence vs. performance, and modularity. The ongoing scientific revolution in language research must be considered against this background. One primary example is the slow but inexorable erosion of the formerly strict theoretical division between a language user’s inherent knowledge of his or her native language (competence) and its implementation in real time and space (performance; Chomsky, 1965).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages511-525
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781107415782
ISBN (Print)9781107058521
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Language
Linguistics
Mental Competency
American Revolution
Organizations
Psycholinguistics
Cognitive Science
Language Development
Human Development
Short-Term Memory
Research
Cognition
Psychology

Cite this

Kutas, M., Kluender, R., Barkley, C., & Amsel, B. (2016). Language. In Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition (pp. 511-525). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107415782.023

Language. / Kutas, Marta; Kluender, Robert; Barkley, Chris; Amsel, Ben.

Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2016. p. 511-525.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Kutas, M, Kluender, R, Barkley, C & Amsel, B 2016, Language. in Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press, pp. 511-525. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107415782.023
Kutas M, Kluender R, Barkley C, Amsel B. Language. In Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press. 2016. p. 511-525 https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107415782.023
Kutas, Marta ; Kluender, Robert ; Barkley, Chris ; Amsel, Ben. / Language. Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2016. pp. 511-525
@inbook{631c9b802aee40cd8c2d31dbd57736ff,
title = "Language",
abstract = "HISTORICAL CONTEXT With the onset of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, language came into focus as one of the main puzzles of human cognition, given that, at least prima facie, it is a behavioral phenomenon not found in any other species, and yet one which virtually every human child - even those with severe disabilities in other cognitive domains - acquires at a relatively early age. This is what motivated Noam Chomsky to look for general underlying - and presumably innate - principles governing human language development. This in turn inspired a broader nativist movement within the cognitive sciences that held sway for most of the latter half of the twentieth century. Thanks to the cognitive revolution and the European and American schools of linguistic structuralism that preceded it, we know a fair amount about the intrinsic organizational principles and implementational mechanisms of language. We know that language is a multilayered system, with principles that apply at different levels of organization: sound, the word, the phrase and the sentence, the entire text, be it written or spoken, and meaning. We further know that as a serialized signal that unfolds sequentially in time and space, language must rely on the support of motor, perceptual, and cognitive systems, including attention and memory, both working and long-term. Yet it is challenging to adumbrate the historical context for language research fully at this time, because the field is in the midst of a Kuhnian paradigm shift whose outcome remains uncertain. The interplay of linguistic principles, levels of organization, and mechanisms lies at the heart of several related but logically independent issues within linguistics and psycholinguistics commonly referred to as psychological reality, competence vs. performance, and modularity. The ongoing scientific revolution in language research must be considered against this background. One primary example is the slow but inexorable erosion of the formerly strict theoretical division between a language user’s inherent knowledge of his or her native language (competence) and its implementation in real time and space (performance; Chomsky, 1965).",
author = "Marta Kutas and Robert Kluender and Chris Barkley and Ben Amsel",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/9781107415782.023",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781107058521",
pages = "511--525",
booktitle = "Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Language

AU - Kutas, Marta

AU - Kluender, Robert

AU - Barkley, Chris

AU - Amsel, Ben

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - HISTORICAL CONTEXT With the onset of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, language came into focus as one of the main puzzles of human cognition, given that, at least prima facie, it is a behavioral phenomenon not found in any other species, and yet one which virtually every human child - even those with severe disabilities in other cognitive domains - acquires at a relatively early age. This is what motivated Noam Chomsky to look for general underlying - and presumably innate - principles governing human language development. This in turn inspired a broader nativist movement within the cognitive sciences that held sway for most of the latter half of the twentieth century. Thanks to the cognitive revolution and the European and American schools of linguistic structuralism that preceded it, we know a fair amount about the intrinsic organizational principles and implementational mechanisms of language. We know that language is a multilayered system, with principles that apply at different levels of organization: sound, the word, the phrase and the sentence, the entire text, be it written or spoken, and meaning. We further know that as a serialized signal that unfolds sequentially in time and space, language must rely on the support of motor, perceptual, and cognitive systems, including attention and memory, both working and long-term. Yet it is challenging to adumbrate the historical context for language research fully at this time, because the field is in the midst of a Kuhnian paradigm shift whose outcome remains uncertain. The interplay of linguistic principles, levels of organization, and mechanisms lies at the heart of several related but logically independent issues within linguistics and psycholinguistics commonly referred to as psychological reality, competence vs. performance, and modularity. The ongoing scientific revolution in language research must be considered against this background. One primary example is the slow but inexorable erosion of the formerly strict theoretical division between a language user’s inherent knowledge of his or her native language (competence) and its implementation in real time and space (performance; Chomsky, 1965).

AB - HISTORICAL CONTEXT With the onset of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, language came into focus as one of the main puzzles of human cognition, given that, at least prima facie, it is a behavioral phenomenon not found in any other species, and yet one which virtually every human child - even those with severe disabilities in other cognitive domains - acquires at a relatively early age. This is what motivated Noam Chomsky to look for general underlying - and presumably innate - principles governing human language development. This in turn inspired a broader nativist movement within the cognitive sciences that held sway for most of the latter half of the twentieth century. Thanks to the cognitive revolution and the European and American schools of linguistic structuralism that preceded it, we know a fair amount about the intrinsic organizational principles and implementational mechanisms of language. We know that language is a multilayered system, with principles that apply at different levels of organization: sound, the word, the phrase and the sentence, the entire text, be it written or spoken, and meaning. We further know that as a serialized signal that unfolds sequentially in time and space, language must rely on the support of motor, perceptual, and cognitive systems, including attention and memory, both working and long-term. Yet it is challenging to adumbrate the historical context for language research fully at this time, because the field is in the midst of a Kuhnian paradigm shift whose outcome remains uncertain. The interplay of linguistic principles, levels of organization, and mechanisms lies at the heart of several related but logically independent issues within linguistics and psycholinguistics commonly referred to as psychological reality, competence vs. performance, and modularity. The ongoing scientific revolution in language research must be considered against this background. One primary example is the slow but inexorable erosion of the formerly strict theoretical division between a language user’s inherent knowledge of his or her native language (competence) and its implementation in real time and space (performance; Chomsky, 1965).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047713354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047713354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/9781107415782.023

DO - 10.1017/9781107415782.023

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:85047713354

SN - 9781107058521

SP - 511

EP - 525

BT - Handbook of Psychophysiology, Fourth Edition

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -