Four patients presented with acute leukemia of ambiguous or myeloid lineage in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and provide evidence suggesting a common origin of the two neoplasms. One patient had a non-constitutional trisomy 21 in both the leukemic blasts and the Langerhans cells indicative of a clonal relationship. A second case expressed CD2, CD13, and CD117 on both the Langerhans cells and the blasts suggesting a possible clonal relationship. All four cases exhibited geographic intermingling of the Langerhans cell histiocytosis and acute leukemia and shared unique features including extramedullary leukemia involving lymph nodes in all cases with Langerhans cell histiocytosis only present in sites involved by acute leukemia. T-cell antigen expression was present in all cases with one meeting criteria for mixed phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid, not otherwise specified. These findings support the concept that coexistent Langerhans cell histiocytosis and acute leukemia is clonally related in some cases. Furthermore, these cases of acute myeloid or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage with Langerhans cell histiocytosis share some unique features suggesting a common underlying neoplastic hematopoietic stem cell.
- Langerhans cell histiocytosis
- acute leukemia
- acute myeloid leukemia
- ambiguous immunophenotype