A formula is derived that shows exactly how much the discrepancy between the volume flux in laminar and in turbulent flow at the same pressure gradient increases as the pressure gradient is increased. We compare laminar and turbulent flows in channels with and without flow control. For the related problem of a fixed bulk-Reynolds-number flow, we seek the theoretical lowest bound for skin-friction drag for control schemes that use surface blowing and suction with zero-net volume-flux addition. For one such case, using a crossflow approach, we show that sustained drag below that of the laminar-Poiseuille-flow case is not possible. For more general control strategies we derive a criterion for achieving sublaminar drag and use this to consider the implications for control strategy design and the limitations at high Reynolds numbers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was in part supported by the National Science Foundation (IM with CTS-0324898, DDJ with CTS-0302837 and KM with CTS-0133837), and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. We are also grateful to Suman Muppidi for useful discussions.