Partial phase diagrams showing the domains of existence of a transparent, viscous, lamellar-structured (D)-phase that transforms reversibly into fluid single phase solutions at high temperature are presented for the system: cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), two low molecular weight alcohols, and water with and without additives. At constant temperature and with a fixed amount of surfactant, the size and location of this phase in the phase diagram depends upon three composition variables: i) the ratio of concentrations of medium chain alcohol to long chain alcohol (R), ii) the ratio of concentrations of medium chain alcohol to surfactant (R′), and iii) the concentrations of small amounts (up to 10 % by weight) of additives such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and dimethylformamide, as well as NaBr. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements of these mixtures reveal a lamellar structure. The observed lamellar repeat distances range from 60 A to 290 Å and depend upon the ratios R and R′ and the concentration of the additives. The mechanical and structural properties of these D-phases can be tuned by adjusting R and R′. The D-phase-to-isotropic transition temperature can be varied from near room temperature to above 80 °C by adjusting R and R′.
- Partial phase diagrams
- cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)
- lamellar structures
- small-angle x-ray scattering