In 1971 it was discovered that the nine banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) could be infected in the laboratory with Mycobacterium leprae, and would manifest disease similar to the lepromatous form of leprosy in man. In 1975 several wild armadillos captured in Louisiana were found to have a disease identical to the M. leprae infection in laboratory animals. To determine if there is a significant association between contact with armadillos and presence of leprosy in humans, the armadillo contact of persons with indigenous leprosy in Louisiana was compared to the contact of matched controls. No difference in the nature of frequency of contact was found. If this infection of wild armadillos is of recent onset, an association with human leprosy in enzootic areas may not be detectable for several years.