Knowledge revision through the lenses of the three-pronged approach

Panayiota A Kendeou, Reese Butterfuss, Jasmine Kim, Martin Van Boekel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


In the present study, we employed the three-pronged approach to determine the actual cognitive processes theorized in knowledge revision. First, the Knowledge Revision Components (KReC) framework was identified as the guiding theory. Second, think-aloud analysis highlighted at which points in refutation texts readers detected discrepancies between their incorrect, commonsense beliefs and the correct beliefs, and the exact processes with which they dealt with these discrepancies—successfully or unsuccessfully, as indicated by posttest scores. Third, corroborating reading-time data and posttest data demonstrated that the structure of the refutation texts facilitated the coactivation and integration of the explanation with the commonsense belief, resulting in knowledge revision. Finally, an analysis directly connected the processes identified during think-aloud to sentence reading times. These findings systematically identify the cognitive processes theorized during knowledge revision and, in doing so, provide evidence for the conditions for revision outlined in the KReC framework.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-46
Number of pages14
JournalMemory and Cognition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 15 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, The Psychonomic Society, Inc.


  • Cognitive processes
  • Knowledge revision
  • Refutation texts
  • Think-aloud
  • Three-pronged approach


Dive into the research topics of 'Knowledge revision through the lenses of the three-pronged approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this