Death-associated protein (DAP) undergoes substantial changes in expression during turkey skeletal muscle development, decreasing from the 18 day embryonic stage to 1 day posthatch, and again from 1 day posthatch to 16 weeks of age. These changes suggest that DAP plays an important role at critical stages of the developmental process. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of DAP in muscle development by examining the effect of reduced DAP expression on global gene expression in proliferating and differentiating turkey pectoralis major muscle satellite cells. Small interfering RNA was used to knock down expression of DAP and the transcriptome was subsequently profiled using a turkey skeletal muscle long oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray data were corroborated using quantitative real-time PCR. In proliferating cells, 458 loci, resulting in 378 uniquely annotated genes, showed differential expression (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05). Pathway analysis highlighted altered eukaryotic translational initiation factors (eIFs) signaling, protein ubiquitination, sirtuin signaling, and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling as the primary pathways affected in the knockdown proliferating cells. The findings underpinned the potential DAP involvement in cell proliferation of turkey satellite cells through the coordination between protein synthesis and cell cycle. In differentiating cells, 270 loci, accounting for 189 unique genes, showed differential expression (FDR < 0.05). Decreased expression of genes encoding various myofibrillar proteins and proteins involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium flux suggests that DAP may affect regulation of calcium homeostasis and cytoskeleton signaling. This study provides the first evidence that reduced expression of DAP significantly alters the transcriptome profile of pectoralis major muscle satellite cells, thereby reducing proliferation and differentiation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to acknowledge Cindy Coy for technical assistance on the in vitro satellite cell culture work and Juan Abrahante for bioinformatic assistance. Funding. This project was supported by a grant from USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Award number 2005-35604-15628 to GS, SV, KR, and RT.
© Copyright © 2020 Horton, Sporer, Tempelman, Malila, Reed, Velleman and Strasburg.
- death-associated protein
- global gene expression
- muscle development
- satellite cells