Khatri-Rao space-time codes

Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos, Ramakrishna S. Budampati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

117 Scopus citations


Space-time (ST) coding techniques exploit the spatial diversity afforded by multiple transmit and receive antennas to achieve reliable transmission in scattering-rich environments. ST block codes are capable of realizing full diversity and spatial coding gains at relatively low rates; ST trellis codes can achieve better rate-diversity tradeoffs at the cost of high complexity. On the other hand, V-BLAST supports high rates but has no built-in spatial coding and does not work well with fewer receive than transmit antennas. We propose a novel linear block-coding scheme based on the Khatri-Rao matrix product. The proposed scheme offers flexibility for achieving full-rate or full-diversity, or a desired rate-diversity tradeoff, and it can handle any transmit/receive antenna configuration or signal constellation. The proposed codes are shown to have numerous desirable properties, including guaranteed unique linear decodability, built-in blind channel identifiability, and efficient near-maximum likelihood decoding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2396-2407
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received May 7, 2001; revised May 6, 2002. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under CAREER award CCR-0096165 and award Wireless CCR-0096164. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Dr. Naofal M. W. Al-Dhahir.


  • Blind channel identifiability
  • Fading channels
  • Multi-antenna systems
  • Receive diversity
  • Space-time codes
  • Transmit diversity
  • Wireless communications


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