Every other year the Keystone Symposia organizes a meeting to discuss the state of the art in chemokine and chemokine receptor research. The focus of the meeting in the past has included the structural and functional identification of chemokines and their receptors. However, this year there was heavy emphasis on the role of chemokines on normal immune function and disease pathogenesis. A number of exciting results were presented and discussed, for example the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in development and progression of tumours, induction and progression of auto-immunity, development of atherosclerosis and the resolution of infectious disease. The last session of the meeting was devoted to discussion of chemokine and chemokine receptor antagonists currently in preclinical development or Phase I clinical trials.