Nuclear-cytoskeletal connections are central to fundamental cellular processes, including nuclear positioning and chromosome movements in meiosis. The cytoskeleton is coupled to the nucleoskeleton through conserved KASH-SUN bridges, or LINC complexes, that span the nuclear envelope. KASH proteins localize to the outer nuclear membrane where they connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. New findings have expanded the functional diversity of KASH proteins, showing that they interact with microtubule motors, actin, intermediate filaments, a nonconventional myosin, RanGAP, and each other. The role of KASH proteins in cellular mechanics is discussed. Genetic mutations in KASH proteins are associated with autism, hearing loss, cancer, muscular dystrophy and other diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
DAS thanks David Fay for hosting him at the University of Wyoming, Laramie while on sabbatical. Studies in the Starr lab are supported by grant R01 GM073874 from the National Institutes of Health NIGMS. GWGL thanks the members of his laboratory, Meg Titus, and Melissa Gardner for insightful discussions. Studies in the Luxton lab are supported by start up funding from the University of Minnesota and P30 Pilot and Feasibility Grant from the Paul and Sheila Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Center.