Kanamycin-furosemide ototoxicity in the mouse cochlea: A 3-dimensional analysis

Heather M. Schmitz, Shane B. Johnson, Peter A. Santi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objective. Administration of an aminoglycoside antibiotic and loop diuretic causes damage to hair cells in the organ of Corti, resulting in their death and the death of their corresponding spiral ganglion neurons. While this phenomenon has been studied previously, analysis of its effects in the whole cochlea has not been reported. The authors sought to evaluate the effects of a combination dose of kanamycin and furosemide in mice cochlea using an imaging system and computer analysis that allowed for nondestructive, whole-cochlea visualization. Study Design. Study using an animal model. Setting. Cochlear analysis laboratory. Subjects and Methods. Five mice received kanamycin and furosemide and 3 mice received saline. Cochleas were harvested and imaged with scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscopy (sTSLIM) to analyze sensory cells and cochlea structures. Results. The drug-treated animals showed substantial loss of inner hair cells and complete outer hair cell loss. All treated mice showed spiral ganglion neuron loss with fewer neurons than control animals and decreased cell density in the middle turn of the cochlea. The spiral ligament and spiral limbus in the treated animals also showed a decrease in fibrocyte cell density in the middle to apical portion of the cochlea. The stria vascularis appeared normal in all animals. Conclusion. Imaging methods that allow for whole-cochlea analysis provide insight into changes that occur in the cochlea after ototoxic insult. Trends that may not be apparent in cross-section samples of the cochlea can be observed. Computer analysis of these trends allows them to be assessed accurately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-672
Number of pages7
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding source: University of Minnesota’s Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, Capita Foundation, the Lions, and the National Institute for Deafness and Communication Disorders (R01 DC007588 to P.A.S.).


  • cell count
  • furosemide
  • hair cell
  • kanamycin
  • organ of Corti
  • sTSLIM
  • spiral ganglion neuron
  • spiral ligament
  • spiral limbus


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