An isolate of Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith), Sacc. HM-8 from a scabby wheat kernel sample from England produced a novel toxin when grown in culture on rice. This toxin, which was given the trivial name of HM-8, was purified, its toxic properties demonstrated and its structure determined by spectroscopic methods. Subsequent to preliminary reports of our findings, two other laboratories have independently isolated the same substance from F. chlamydosporum and F. acuminatum, and demonstrated the same structure by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. Identity of the metabolite from F. culmorum HM-8 with the published structure is based on (1) identical elemental composition derived from both elemental analysis and high resolution mass spectrometry in electron impact and fast atom bombardment modes, (2) comparable melting point and chromatographic properties, and (3) the presence of characteristic absorption bands in the infrared, ultraviolet, and nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and carbon-13) spectra. Because both laboratories which subsequently isolated this metabolite have used the name chlamydosporol, it is being adopted here. The mass spectral properties of chlamydosporol are described. The derivative 8-O-acetylchlamydosporol was prepared and characterized. Chlamydosporol caused food refusal and weight loss in rats, cytotoxic effects to cultured mouse and human fibroblast cells at concentrations of 2.5 μg/ml and 7.5 μg/ml, respectively, and mortality to chick embryos (10 to 70%) over a concentration range from 0.5 mg to 4 mg per egg.
- Fusarium culmorum HM-8
- chemical and biological activities