Hypertension is one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases. Synthetic drugs inhibiting ACE activity present high effectiveness in the treatment of hypertension but cause undesirable side effects. Unlike these synthetic drugs, antihypertensive peptides do not show any adverse effect. These peptides are naturally present in some foods and since hypertension is closely related to modern diet habits, the interest for this kind of foods is increasing. Different methods for the purification, isolation, and characterization of antihypertensive peptides in foods have been developed. Nevertheless, there is no revision work summarizing and comparing these strategies. In this review, in vivo and in vitro pathways to obtain antihypertensive peptides have been summarized. The ACE mechanism and the methodologies developed to assay the ACE inhibitory activity have also been described. Moreover, a comprehensive overview on the isolation, purification, and identification techniques focusing on the discovery of new antihypertensive peptides with high activity has been included. Finally, it is worthy to highlight that the quantitation of antihypertensive peptides in foods is a new trend since genotype and processing conditions could affect their presence. Analytical methodologies using mass spectrometry constitute an interesting option for this purpose.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain) for projects CTQ2009-09022 and CTQ2009-11252 and the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for project AGL2012-36362. Patrycja Puchalska thanks the University of Alcalá for her pre-doctoral grant.
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