An olive oil (OO) rich diet or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) independently improve markers of health and energy metabolism, but it is unknown if combining OO and HIIT synergize to improve these markers. This study characterized the isolated and combined impact of OO and HIIT on markers of health and energy metabolism in various tissues in C57BL/6J female mice. Nine-week-old mice were divided into four groups for a 12-week diet and/or exercise intervention including: (1) Control Diet without HIIT (CD), (2) Control Diet with HIIT (CD+HIIT), (3) OO diet (10% kcal from olive oil) without HIIT, and (4) OO diet with HIIT (OO+HIIT). Neither dietary OO or HIIT altered body weight, glucose tolerance, or serum lipids. HIIT, regardless of diet, increased aerobic capacity and HDL cholesterol levels. In liver and heart tissue, OO resulted in similar adaptations as HIIT including increased mitochondrial content and fatty acid oxidation but combining OO with HIIT did not augment these effects. In skeletal muscle, HIIT increased mitochondrial content in type II fibers similarly between diets. An RNA sequencing analysis on type I fibers revealed OO reduced muscle regeneration and lipid metabolism gene abundance, whereas HIIT increased the abundance of these genes, independent of diet. HIIT training, independent of diet, induced subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) hypertrophy, whereas OO induced gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) hypertrophy, an effect that was augmented with HIIT. These data highlight the pleiotropic effects of OO and HIIT, although their combination does not synergize to further improve most markers of health and energy metabolism.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Grant support for this project was provided by NIH grants ( DK109556 , DK110338 , DK125258 ) awarded to T.D.H., NIH grant ( DK007203 ) awarded to C.P.N., NIH grants ( AG055452 and DK114401 ) awarded to D.G.M., AHA grant ( 19POST34370105) awarded to T.D.H., and AHA grant ( 20POST35180115 ) awarded to C.P.N.
- Mediterranean diet
- high-intensity interval exercise
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article