Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?

Ragui Assaad, Caroline Krafft

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    25 Scopus citations


    Egypt has made enormous progress in increasing access to education. While school is theoretically free, families must often spend substantial sums in order for their children to succeed in school. The question that this paper investigates is whether students can succeed in Egypt's basic education system, regardless of their family circumstances, and without additional spending. The paper begins by examining inequality in completing basic education and then investigates the use of supplements, such as private tutoring. Outcomes are examined by socio-economic status, to illustrate how the need to supplement publicly provided basic education contributes to unequal opportunities for young Egyptians.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)16-30
    Number of pages15
    JournalInternational Journal of Educational Development
    StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    The authors acknowledge the funding support of the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies for this project. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions are the authors’ own. The authors are grateful for the able research assistance of Iloila Tan and the assistance, questions, comments and suggestions provided by Sherif El Diwany and his team from the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies staff.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

    Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


    • Basic education
    • Education policy
    • Education quality
    • Inequality
    • Private tutoring
    • Public education


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