Iron influence on dissolved color in lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States

Patrick L. Brezonik, Jacques C Finlay, Claire G Griffin, Bill Arnold, Evelyn H. Boardman, Noah Germolus, Raymond M Hozalski, Leif Olmanson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a major component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in many lakes, is an important controlling factor in lake ecosystem functioning. Absorption coefficients at 440 nm (a 440 , m -1 ), a common measure of CDOM, exhibited strong associations with dissolved iron (Fe diss ) and DOC in 280 lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States (UGLS: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), as has been found in Scandinavia and elsewhere. Linear regressions between the three variables on UGLS lake data typically yielded R 2 values of 0.6-0.9, suggesting that some underlying common processes influence organic matter and Fe diss . Statistical and experimental evidence, however, supports only a minor role for iron contributions to a 440 in UGLS lakes. Although both DOC and Fe diss were significant variables in linear and log-log regressions on a 440 , DOC was the stronger predictor; adding Fe diss to the linear a 440 -DOC model improved the R 2 only from 0.90 to 0.93. Furthermore, experimental additions of Fe III to colored lake waters had only small effects on a 440 (average increase of 0.242 m -1 per 100 μg/L of added Fe III ). For 136 visibly stained waters (with a 440 > 3.0 m -1 ), where allochthonous DOM predominates, DOM accounted for 92.3 ± 5.0% of the measured a 440 values, and Fe diss accounted for the remainder. In 75% of the lakes, Fe diss accounted for < 10% of a 440 , but contributions of 15-30% were observed for 7 river-influenced lakes. Contributions of Fe diss in UGLS lakes to specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ) generally were also low. Although Fe diss accounted for 5-10% of measured SUVA 254 in a few samples, on average, 98.1% of the SUVA 254 signal was attributable to DOM and only 1.9% to Fe diss . DOC predictions from measured a 440 were nearly identical to those from a 440 corrected to remove Fe diss contributions. Overall, variations in Fe diss in most UGLS lakes have very small effects on CDOM optical properties, such as a 440 and SUVA 254 , and negligible effects on the accuracy of DOC estimated from a 440 , data for which can be obtained at broad regional scales by remote sensing methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0211979
JournalPloS one
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

Great Lakes
Lakes
Iron
Color
dissolved organic carbon
iron
Organic carbon
lakes
color
Carbon
absorbance
Biological materials
dissolved organic matter
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methylamphetamine
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
optical properties
Scandinavia
Water
carbon sinks
remote sensing

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Cite this

Iron influence on dissolved color in lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States. / Brezonik, Patrick L.; Finlay, Jacques C; Griffin, Claire G; Arnold, Bill; Boardman, Evelyn H.; Germolus, Noah; Hozalski, Raymond M; Olmanson, Leif.

In: PloS one, Vol. 14, No. 2, e0211979, 01.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brezonik, Patrick L. ; Finlay, Jacques C ; Griffin, Claire G ; Arnold, Bill ; Boardman, Evelyn H. ; Germolus, Noah ; Hozalski, Raymond M ; Olmanson, Leif. / Iron influence on dissolved color in lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States. In: PloS one. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 2.
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abstract = "Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a major component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in many lakes, is an important controlling factor in lake ecosystem functioning. Absorption coefficients at 440 nm (a 440 , m -1 ), a common measure of CDOM, exhibited strong associations with dissolved iron (Fe diss ) and DOC in 280 lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States (UGLS: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), as has been found in Scandinavia and elsewhere. Linear regressions between the three variables on UGLS lake data typically yielded R 2 values of 0.6-0.9, suggesting that some underlying common processes influence organic matter and Fe diss . Statistical and experimental evidence, however, supports only a minor role for iron contributions to a 440 in UGLS lakes. Although both DOC and Fe diss were significant variables in linear and log-log regressions on a 440 , DOC was the stronger predictor; adding Fe diss to the linear a 440 -DOC model improved the R 2 only from 0.90 to 0.93. Furthermore, experimental additions of Fe III to colored lake waters had only small effects on a 440 (average increase of 0.242 m -1 per 100 μg/L of added Fe III ). For 136 visibly stained waters (with a 440 > 3.0 m -1 ), where allochthonous DOM predominates, DOM accounted for 92.3 ± 5.0{\%} of the measured a 440 values, and Fe diss accounted for the remainder. In 75{\%} of the lakes, Fe diss accounted for < 10{\%} of a 440 , but contributions of 15-30{\%} were observed for 7 river-influenced lakes. Contributions of Fe diss in UGLS lakes to specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ) generally were also low. Although Fe diss accounted for 5-10{\%} of measured SUVA 254 in a few samples, on average, 98.1{\%} of the SUVA 254 signal was attributable to DOM and only 1.9{\%} to Fe diss . DOC predictions from measured a 440 were nearly identical to those from a 440 corrected to remove Fe diss contributions. Overall, variations in Fe diss in most UGLS lakes have very small effects on CDOM optical properties, such as a 440 and SUVA 254 , and negligible effects on the accuracy of DOC estimated from a 440 , data for which can be obtained at broad regional scales by remote sensing methods.",
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AU - Finlay, Jacques C

AU - Griffin, Claire G

AU - Arnold, Bill

AU - Boardman, Evelyn H.

AU - Germolus, Noah

AU - Hozalski, Raymond M

AU - Olmanson, Leif

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N2 - Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a major component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in many lakes, is an important controlling factor in lake ecosystem functioning. Absorption coefficients at 440 nm (a 440 , m -1 ), a common measure of CDOM, exhibited strong associations with dissolved iron (Fe diss ) and DOC in 280 lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States (UGLS: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), as has been found in Scandinavia and elsewhere. Linear regressions between the three variables on UGLS lake data typically yielded R 2 values of 0.6-0.9, suggesting that some underlying common processes influence organic matter and Fe diss . Statistical and experimental evidence, however, supports only a minor role for iron contributions to a 440 in UGLS lakes. Although both DOC and Fe diss were significant variables in linear and log-log regressions on a 440 , DOC was the stronger predictor; adding Fe diss to the linear a 440 -DOC model improved the R 2 only from 0.90 to 0.93. Furthermore, experimental additions of Fe III to colored lake waters had only small effects on a 440 (average increase of 0.242 m -1 per 100 μg/L of added Fe III ). For 136 visibly stained waters (with a 440 > 3.0 m -1 ), where allochthonous DOM predominates, DOM accounted for 92.3 ± 5.0% of the measured a 440 values, and Fe diss accounted for the remainder. In 75% of the lakes, Fe diss accounted for < 10% of a 440 , but contributions of 15-30% were observed for 7 river-influenced lakes. Contributions of Fe diss in UGLS lakes to specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ) generally were also low. Although Fe diss accounted for 5-10% of measured SUVA 254 in a few samples, on average, 98.1% of the SUVA 254 signal was attributable to DOM and only 1.9% to Fe diss . DOC predictions from measured a 440 were nearly identical to those from a 440 corrected to remove Fe diss contributions. Overall, variations in Fe diss in most UGLS lakes have very small effects on CDOM optical properties, such as a 440 and SUVA 254 , and negligible effects on the accuracy of DOC estimated from a 440 , data for which can be obtained at broad regional scales by remote sensing methods.

AB - Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a major component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in many lakes, is an important controlling factor in lake ecosystem functioning. Absorption coefficients at 440 nm (a 440 , m -1 ), a common measure of CDOM, exhibited strong associations with dissolved iron (Fe diss ) and DOC in 280 lakes of the Upper Great Lakes States (UGLS: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), as has been found in Scandinavia and elsewhere. Linear regressions between the three variables on UGLS lake data typically yielded R 2 values of 0.6-0.9, suggesting that some underlying common processes influence organic matter and Fe diss . Statistical and experimental evidence, however, supports only a minor role for iron contributions to a 440 in UGLS lakes. Although both DOC and Fe diss were significant variables in linear and log-log regressions on a 440 , DOC was the stronger predictor; adding Fe diss to the linear a 440 -DOC model improved the R 2 only from 0.90 to 0.93. Furthermore, experimental additions of Fe III to colored lake waters had only small effects on a 440 (average increase of 0.242 m -1 per 100 μg/L of added Fe III ). For 136 visibly stained waters (with a 440 > 3.0 m -1 ), where allochthonous DOM predominates, DOM accounted for 92.3 ± 5.0% of the measured a 440 values, and Fe diss accounted for the remainder. In 75% of the lakes, Fe diss accounted for < 10% of a 440 , but contributions of 15-30% were observed for 7 river-influenced lakes. Contributions of Fe diss in UGLS lakes to specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ) generally were also low. Although Fe diss accounted for 5-10% of measured SUVA 254 in a few samples, on average, 98.1% of the SUVA 254 signal was attributable to DOM and only 1.9% to Fe diss . DOC predictions from measured a 440 were nearly identical to those from a 440 corrected to remove Fe diss contributions. Overall, variations in Fe diss in most UGLS lakes have very small effects on CDOM optical properties, such as a 440 and SUVA 254 , and negligible effects on the accuracy of DOC estimated from a 440 , data for which can be obtained at broad regional scales by remote sensing methods.

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