In the last decade, in vivo oxygen-17 (17O) MRS has evolved into a promising MR technique for noninvasively studying oxygen metabolism and perfusion in aerobic organs with the capability of imaging the regional metabolic rate of oxygen and its changes. In this chapter, we will briefly review the methodology of the in vivo 17O MRS technique and its recent development and applications; we will also discuss the advantages of the high/ultrahigh magnetic field for 17O MR detection, as well as the challenges and potential of this unique MRS method for biomedical research of oxygen metabolism, mitochondrial function and tissue energetics in health and disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Drs. Byeong-Yuel Lee, Xiao Liu, Ming Lu, Kamil Ugurbil, Nanyin Zhang, Xiaoliang Zhang, Yi Zhang and Mr. John Strupp and Hannes Wiesner for their technical assistance and support. The reviewed work was partially funded by the NIH grants of NS041262 , NS057560 , NS070839 , R24 MH106049 , R24 MH106049-S1 , P30 NS076408 , P41 EB015894 and S10 RR026783 ; and the W.M. Keck Foundation .