## Abstract

We describe methods for assessing all possible criteria (i.e., dependent variables) and subsets of criteria for regression models with a fixed set of predictors, x (where x is an n×1 vector of independent variables). Our methods build upon the geometry of regression coefficients (hereafter called regression weights) in n-dimensional space. For a full-rank predictor correlation matrix, R_{xx}, of order n, and for regression models with constant R^{2} (coefficient of determination), the OLS weight vectors for all possible criteria terminate on the surface of an n-dimensional ellipsoid. The population performance of alternate regression weights-such as equal weights, correlation weights, or rounded weights-can be modeled as a function of the Cartesian coordinates of the ellipsoid. These geometrical notions can be easily extended to assess the sampling performance of alternate regression weights in models with either fixed or random predictors and for models with any value of R^{2}. To illustrate these ideas, we describe algorithms and R (R Development Core Team, 2009) code for: (1) generating points that are uniformly distributed on the surface of an n-dimensional ellipsoid, (2) populating the set of regression (weight) vectors that define an elliptical arc in ℝ^{n}, and (3) populating the set of regression vectors that have constant cosine with a target vector in ℝ^{n}. Each algorithm is illustrated with real data. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of studying all possible criteria when evaluating alternate regression weights in regression models with a fixed set of predictors.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 410-439 |

Number of pages | 30 |

Journal | Psychometrika |

Volume | 76 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 2011 |

## Keywords

- Monte Carlo
- multiple regression
- weighting