Objective: We used a population-based data set to assess the association between the extent of pulmonary resection for bronchoalveolar carcinoma and survival. The reports thus far have been limited to small, institutional series. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988-2007), we identified patients with bronchoalveolar carcinoma who had undergone wedge resection, segmentectomy, or lobectomy. The bronchoalveolar carcinoma histologic findings were mucinous, nonmucinous, mixed, not otherwise specified, and alveolar carcinoma. To adjust for potential confounders, we used a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: A total of 6810 patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the sublobar resections (wedge resections and segmentectomies), lobectomy conferred superior 5-year overall (59.5% vs 43.9%) and cancer-specific (67.1% vs 53.1%) survival (P < .0001). After adjusting for potential confounding patient and tumor characteristics, we found that patients who underwent an anatomic resection had significantly better overall (segmentectomy: hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.81; lobectomy: hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.57) and cancer-specific (segmentectomy: hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.75; lobectomy: hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.53) survival compared with patients who underwent wedge resection. Additionally, gender, race, tumor size, and degree of tumor de-differentiation were negative prognostic factors. Our results were unchanged when we limited our analysis to early-stage disease. Conclusions: Using a population-based data set, we found that anatomic resections for bronchoalveolar carcinoma conferred superior overall and cancer-specific survival rates compared with wedge resection. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma's propensity for intraparenchymal spread might be the underlying biologic basis of our observation of improved survival after anatomic resection.