The use of ultrasound to provide noninvasive evaluation of cardiac structure and function was a revolutionary advancement in cardiac care in the late 20th century. Today, echocardiography allows for detailed serial examinations of: (1) heart development; (2) cardiac structure and function; and (3) changes in normal physiologic states and pathologic conditions. The goals of this chapter are to: (1) provide the reader with a brief overview of the types of echocardiography in clinical use today; (2) review the basic physical principles that underlie this clinical tool; and (3) demonstrate how echocardiography can be used to assess cardiac structure and function.
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- 2D imaging
- Color Doppler flow mapping
- Doppler ultrasound
- M-mode echocardiography
- Tissue Doppler imaging
- Transabdominal echocardiography
- Transthoracic echocardiography
- Transvaginal echocardiography
- Ultrasound imaging