Introduction and overview

Nathern S. Okilwa, Muhammad Khalifa, Felecia M. Briscoe

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This introduction chapter provides context to the ubiquitous nature of school discipline disproportionality, which has morphed into what is now commonly known as school-to-prison pipeline (STPP). A sample of major studies on school discipline research is presented to highlight the breadth and depth of the impact of discipline disparity on racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students, low-income students, and students with disabilities. We also address how the interaction between implicit or explicit racism and discipline policies and practices exacerbates STPP. We acknowledge the efforts made by school systems to reverse the STPP trend through interventions such as restorative justice and positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS). We posit that principals and teachers are critical agents in reforming the pervasive STPP trajectory. Finally, this chapter provides a synopsis of the rest of the chapters contained in this book.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalAdvances in Race and Ethnicity in Education
StatePublished - 2017


  • Discipline disparity
  • Interventions
  • Principals
  • Racial and linguistic minorities
  • School-to-prison pipeline
  • Teachers


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