BACKGROUND:: Selective blockade of spinal ς1 receptors (Sig-1R) suppresses nociceptive behaviors in the mouse formalin test. The current study was designed to verify whether intrathecal Sig-1R antagonists can also suppress chronic neuropathic pain. METHODS:: Neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve in rats. The Sig-1R antagonist BD1047 was administered intrathecally twice daily from postoperative days 0 to 5 (induction phase of neuropathic pain) or from days 15 to 20 (maintenance phase). Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine changes in Sig-1R expression and to examine the effect of BD1047 on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 expression and phosphorylation in spinal cord dorsal horn from neuropathic rats. RESULTS:: BD1047 administered on postoperative days 0-5 significantly attenuated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, and this suppression was blocked by intrathecal administration of the Sig-1R agonist PRE084. In contrast, BD1047 treatment during the maintenance phase of neuropathic pain had no effect on mechanical allodynia. Sig-1R expression significantly increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn from days 1 to 3 after CCI. Importantly, BD1047 (30 nmol) administered intrathecally during the induction, but not the maintenance phase, blocked the CCI-induced increase in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS:: These results demonstrate that spinal Sig-1Rs play a critical role in both the induction of mechanical allodynia and the activation of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in CCI rats and suggest a potential therapeutic role for the use of Sig-1R antagonists in the clinical management of neuropathic pain.