Intraoperative fluorescence with indocyanine green in congenital cardiac surgery: Potential applications of a novel technology

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10 Scopus citations


Background: Achieving successful repair of congenital heart defects requires attention to detail. Careful evaluation of anastomotic site patency, reimplanted coronary arteries, location of epicardial coronaries, and myocardial perfusion may be necessary to ensure safe conduct of the operation and achieve excellent outcomes. Methods: Intraoperative fluorescence angiography (IOFA) was performed using indocyanine green in patients undergoing the following procedures: coronary artery reimplantation, coronary artery unroofing, evaluation of intraoperative coronary anatomy, reoperation requiring ventriculotomy, coarctation/interrupted aortic arch repair, systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, Norwood procedure, thoracic duct localization, and vascular rings. Results: The technique was feasible in all patients. No mortality or adverse events related to the dye were encountered. Adequate intraoperative imaging was obtained in 15 patients (20 images), which correlated well with postoperative studies. The imaging quality was superior for assessing shunt patency, myocardial perfusion, and anastomotic patency and determining the location of epicardial coronary arteries but was less so for assessing branch pulmonary arteries. Conclusions: IOFA is a useful and safe technique that can provide a quick on-table assessment of a variety of congenital surgical procedures. This may help answer questions that can minimize postoperative interventions and help ensure a smooth perioperative course and excellent outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)144-155
Number of pages12
JournalJTCVS Techniques
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Mahmoud Said, Minnetonka High School, Minneapolis, Minn, for his assistance in editing several of the visual materials and figures provided for this study. We also thank Ms. Tanya Wessels, and Jeri Havens from Stryker for their valuable guidance in providing the proper dosage of indocyanine green and intraoperative assistance in obtaining the images.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery


  • congenital heart surgery
  • fluorescence
  • imaging technology
  • indocyanine green


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