Intracranial CNS manifestations of myeloid sarcoma in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Review of the literature and three case reports from the author’s institution

Gustavo M. Cervantes, Zuzan Cayci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare presentation of leukemic mass infiltration outside of the bone marrow. It may involve the subperiosteum and dura mater and, on rare occasions, can also invade the brain parenchyma. The disease is most commonly seen in children or young adults; however, it has been described in multiple age groups. MS can be seen in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. This entity has the potential to be underdiagnosed if the MS appearance precedes the first diagnosis of leukemia. The main reason is that their appearance on CT and MRI has a broad differential diagnosis, and proper diagnosis of MS can only be made if the imaging findings are correlated with the clinical history and laboratory findings. Herein, we describe the intracranial CNS manifestations of MS in patients with AML on CT and MRI involving the brain and/or meninges. This study is based on a systematic review of the literature. In addition, three case reports from the author’s institution with AML and intracranial involvement of MS are included. Our aim is to enhance the awareness of this entity among both clinicians and radiologists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1102-1112
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • AML
  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Brain
  • Central nervous system
  • Chloroma
  • Extramedullary disease
  • Intracranial
  • Leukemia
  • Myeloid sarcoma
  • Spine

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