Background: Childhood maltreatment has been linked to adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) in late adolescence and young adulthood and CVD risk later in adulthood. Purpose: To examine whether IPV perpetration and victimization experienced in late adolescence and young adulthood are associated with CVD risk among adults in the United States and whether this relationship differs by sex. Methods: Data include 9976 participants (50% female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Physical and sexual IPV were measured at wave 3 (2001/02) with items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Participants'30-year risk of CVD was calculated at wave 4 (2008/09) using a Framingham prediction model. Linear regression models adjusted for confounders and IPV by sex interaction terms were tested to examine the relationship. Results: The mean CVD risk score was 13.18% (95% CI: 12.71, 13.64). Aone-standard deviation increase in the victimization score was associated with a 0.28% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.54) increase in CVD risk. Perpetration was similarly positively associated with CVD risk (beta: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). When measured as a composite, all violence types were associated with increased CVD risk but only prior exposure to both victimization and perpetration reached statistical significance (0.62%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.22). No differences by sex were detected. Conclusions: Effect sizes are not large, but early detection of increased CVD risk in this relatively young population is notable and worthy of further study to inform the clinical response.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research uses data from Add Health, a program project directed by Kathleen Mullan Harris and designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris at the University of North Carolinaat Chapel Hill, and funded by grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Information on how to obtain the Add Health data files is available on the Add Health website ( http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth ). No direct support was received from grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis.
Dr. Cari Jo Clark was supported by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH Award Number 8UL1TR000114-02 / KL2TR000113 and grant number R03HD068045 from the Eunice KennedyShriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Additional support was provided by the Program in Health Disparities Research and the Applied Clinical Research Program at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Susan A. Everson-Rose was supported in part by grant 1P60MD003422 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities and by the Program in Health Disparities Research and the Applied Clinical Research Program at the University of Minnesota . Study sponsors had no role in study design; collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; writing the report; or the decision to submit the report for publication. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
- Adolescent health services
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Domestic violence
- National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health