Interstrand and intrastrand DNA-DNA cross-linking by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane: Role of stereochemistry

Soobong Park, Christopher Anderson, Rachel Loeber, Mahadevan Seetharaman, Roger Jones, Natalia Tretyakova

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1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane (DEB) is a bifunctional electrophile capable of forming DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links. DNA alkylation by DEB produces N7-(2′-hydroxy-3′,4′-epoxybut-1′-yl)-guanine monoadducts, which can then form 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD) lesions. All three optical isomers of DEB are produced metabolically from 1,3-butadiene, but S,S-DEB is the most cytotoxic and genotoxic. In the present work, interstrand and intrastrand DNA-DNA cross-linking by individual DEB stereoisomers was investigated by PAGE, mass spectrometry, and stable isotope labeling. S,S-, R,R-, and meso-diepoxides were synthesized from L-dimethyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-tartrate, D-dimethyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene- tartrate, and meso-erythritol, respectively. Total numbers of bis-N7G-BD lesions (intrastrand and interstrand) in calf thymus DNA treated separately with S,S-, R,R-, or meso-DEB (0.01-0.5 mM) were similar as determined by capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS of DNA hydrolysates. However, denaturing PAGE has revealed that S,S-DEB produced the highest number of interchain cross-links in 5′-GGC-3′/3′-CCG-5′ sequences. Intrastrand adduct formation by DEB was investigated by a novel methodology based on stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS. Meso DEB treatment of DNA duplexes containing 5′-[1,7, NH2-15N3,2- 13C-G]GC-3′/3′-CCG-5′ and 5′-GGC-3′/ 3′-CC[15N3,2-13C-G]-5′ trinucleotides gave rise to comparable numbers of 1,2-intrastrand and 1,3-interstrand bis-N7G-BD cross-links, while S,S DEB produced few intrastrand lesions. R,R-DEB treated DNA contained mostly 1,3-interstrand bis-N7G-BD, along with smaller amounts of 1,2-interstrand and 1,2-intrastrand adducts. The effects of DEB stereochemistry on its ability to form DNA-DNA cross-links may be rationalized by the spatial relationships between the epoxy alcohol side chains in stereoisomeric N7-(2′-hydroxy-3′,4′-epoxybut-1′-yl)- guanine adducts and their DNA environment. Different cross-linking specificities of DEB stereoisomers provide a likely structural basis for their distinct biological activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14355-14365
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number41
StatePublished - Oct 19 2005


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