This study uses critical race quantitative intersectionality to examine the impacts of gender and dis/ability type on Black students’ school discipline outcomes. We use multilevel logistic regression models to analyze data from a large urban school district, considering the intersectional impact of gender and dis/ability type on school discipline outcomes among Black students (suspension, restorative justice, referral to law enforcement). We found that Black students identified as male, labeled with emotional dis/abilities, or identified as having ADHD were more likely to experience school discipline consequences than those who were not. These findings suggest that gender and dis/ability status are significant correlates of discipline outcomes, indicating that a general focus on race or special education masks important differences in discipline disparities.
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- Critical quantitative methods
- School discipline