BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, particularly in those of advanced age. Because patients with CKD frequently have cardiac comorbidities and acute or chronic symptoms that may represent heart failure or an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), testing for concentrations of cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides is frequent. Interpretation of these biomarkers can be challenging when differentiating acute from chronic processes, potentially resulting in missed opportunities to direct appropriate treatment. CONTENT: This review is designed to provide clinicians and laboratorians a platform to understand cardiac specific biomarker interpretation in patients with CKD by summarizing the extensive literature base that has developed specific to this population. First we review the epidemiology and unique contributions of CKD to cardiac pathophysiology. Next we consider the interpretation of cardiac troponin tests for the diagnosis AMI and the prognostic significance of chronic increases across the spectrum of CKD including those requiring renal replacement therapy. Last, we consider the caveats of interpreting natriuretic peptide results for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure in addition to the short- and long-term prognostic implications of increased natriuretic peptide concentrations and CKD in a patient with heart failure. SUMMARY: CKD is common and associated with acceleration of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac biomarker concentrations are often increased even in an absence of symptoms; typically reflecting the extent of underlying cardiovascular disease rather than impairment of renal clearance. Thoughtful interpretation of cardiac biomarkers in those withCKDcan continue to provide important diagnostic and prognostic information.