International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal: Medical treatment of canine epilepsy in Europe

Sofie F M Bhatti, Luisa De Risio, Karen Muñana, Jacques Penderis, Veronika M. Stein, Andrea Tipold, Mette Berendt, Robyn G. Farquhar, Andrea Fischer, Sam Long, Wolfgang Löscher, Paul J J Mandigers, Kaspar Matiasek, Akos Pakozdy, Edward E. Patterson, Simon Platt, Michael Podell, Heidrun Potschka, Clare Rusbridge, Holger A. Volk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


In Europe, the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) licensed for dogs has grown considerably over the last years. Nevertheless, the same questions remain, which include, 1) when to start treatment, 2) which drug is best used initially, 3) which adjunctive AED can be advised if treatment with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number176
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 28 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Following reimbursements, fees and funding have been received by the authors in the last three years and have been declared in the competing interest section. WL, CR, RGF, HAV, KM, MP and JP have received fees for acting as a consultant for Boehringer Ingelheim (WL, KM, MP: consultancy during development and approval of imepitoin; CR: pain consultancy; RGF, JP, HAV: consultancy pre and post launch of imepitoin). AT has been an advisor for Boehringer Ingelheim. SFMB, HAV and AT have been responsible principal investigator of several research studies concerning imepitoin financed by Boehringer Ingelheim. SFMB, HAV, JP, HP, MB, CR and AF received speaking fees from Boehringer Ingelheim. HP received consulting and speaking fees and funding for a collaborative project from Eisai Co. LTD. HAV received funding for a collaborative project from Desitin and Nestlé Purina Research. AF and LDR received reimbursements from Boehringer Ingelheim. LDR has received consulting and speaking fees from Vetoquinol. MP has received consultant fees for Aratana. The other authors declared that they have no competing interests.

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to all owners of epileptic pets and veterinary colleagues who have inspired the group to create consensus statements. The authors also would like to thank the research office for assessing the manuscript according to the Royal Veterinary College’s code of good research practice (Authorisation Number – CCS_ 01027). This study was not financially supported by any organization or grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Bhatti et al.


  • Dog
  • Epilepsy
  • Epileptic seizure
  • Treatment


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