Alternative processing of parvovirus B19 (B19V) pre-mRNA is critical to generating appropriate levels of B19V mRNA transcripts encoding capsid proteins and small nonstructural proteins. Polyadenylation of the B19V pre-mRNA at the proximal polyadenylation site ((pA)p), which prevents generation of full-length capsid proteins encoding mRNA transcripts, has been suggested as a step that blocks B19V permissiveness. We report here that efficient splicing of the B19V pre-mRNA within the first intron (upstream of the (pA)p site) stimulated the polyadenylation; in contrast, splicing of the B19V pre-mRNA within the second intron (in which the (pA)p site resides) interfered with the polyadenylation, leading to the generation of a sufficient number of B19V mRNA transcripts polyadenylated at the distal polyadenylation site ((pA)d). We also found that splicing within the second intron and polyadenylation at the (pA)p site compete during processing of the B19V pre-mRNA. Furthermore, we discovered that the U1 RNA that binds to the 5′ splice donor site of the second intron is fully responsible for inhibiting polyadenylation at the (pA)p site, whereas actual splicing, and perhaps assembly of the functional spliceosome, is not required. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of B19V pre-mRNA splicing within the second intron by targeting an intronic splicing enhancer using a Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide prevented B19V mRNA transcripts polyadenylated at the (pA)d site during B19V infection of human erythroid progenitors. Thus, our study reveals the mechanism by which alternative splicing coordinates alternative polyadenylation to generate full-length B19V mRNA transcripts at levels sufficient to support productive B19V infection.