Internal loading in stormwater ponds as a phosphorus source to downstream waters

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

We assessed the prevalence and causes of sediment phosphorus (P) release within urban stormwater ponds, a process that may reduce P removal by sedimentation. Data collected from surface water of 98 urban stormwater ponds in Minnesota showed that nearly 40% had median summer total P concentrations in excess of average stormwater runoff (0.38 mg L−1), implying effects of internal loading. We sampled seven ponds more intensively and found four were strongly stratified with persistent hypolimnetic anoxia, despite mean depths <2 m. Sediment core incubations revealed that, unlike in most lakes, both labile organic P (NaOH minus persulfate extractions) and redox-sensitive P (NH4Cl and Na2S2O4 extractions) contribute to P release. Together, these analyses suggest P accumulated in stormwater ponds is highly susceptible to internal release and potentially contributes to downstream eutrophication. Understanding how frequently these conditions occur and how they affect different P forms is vital to improving pond design and management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-330
Number of pages9
JournalLimnology and Oceanography Letters
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions and support of various individuals and groups without which this study would not have been possible. First, we respectfully acknowledge that the lands on which this study occurred are the original homelands of the Dakota and Ojibwe Nations. And we aspire to honor and respect the Indigenous peoples who were forcibly removed from and are still connected to this territory by owning our part in their continued displacement. The authors also wish to thank the following: Peter Corkery, Rikita Patel, Peter Olson, Maria Camila Merino Franco, and Parker Brown for assistance with laboratory analyses; Daniel R. Engstrom for developing the phosphorus fractionation analysis method at the St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) in 2010 and Robert Dietz and Michelle Natarajan for modifying it in 2015 and training the authors on the laboratory procedures; Krysta Garayt, Claire Jaeger Mountain, Peter Corkery, Peter Olson, Maria Camila Merino Franco, and Parker Brown for assisting with field sampling; the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency for providing funding from the Minnesota Clean Water Council (grant number Swift 107988/PO3000016025); the City of Edina, Minnesota for funding the study of ponds F and G; the National Science Foundation (grant number 00039202) for funding the first author; LacCore, University of Minnesota for supporting sediment coring fieldwork; the Riley Purgatory Bluff Creek Watershed District (RPBCWD) for providing data collected by staff from Braun Intertec and David Austin (PI) and Roger Scharf (co‐PI) of CH2M (now Jacobs) in a project funded by RPBCWD from 2010 to 2012; the Cities of Bloomington, Chanhassen, Eden Prairie, and Minnetonka for assisting with RPBCWD pond monitoring; the City of St. Cloud for providing additional monitoring data for pond A; and the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo‐Engineering, the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, and the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities for providing facilities and resources to support the research. The authors also wish to thank Dr Patricia A. Soranno and the two anonymous reviewers for their extensive and detailed feedback that greatly improved the clarity and overall quality of this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions and support of various individuals and groups without which this study would not have been possible. First, we respectfully acknowledge that the lands on which this study occurred are the original homelands of the Dakota and Ojibwe Nations. And we aspire to honor and respect the Indigenous peoples who were forcibly removed from and are still connected to this territory by owning our part in their continued displacement. The authors also wish to thank the following: Peter Corkery, Rikita Patel, Peter Olson, Maria Camila Merino Franco, and Parker Brown for assistance with laboratory analyses; Daniel R. Engstrom for developing the phosphorus fractionation analysis method at the St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) in 2010 and Robert Dietz and Michelle Natarajan for modifying it in 2015 and training the authors on the laboratory procedures; Krysta Garayt, Claire Jaeger Mountain, Peter Corkery, Peter Olson, Maria Camila Merino Franco, and Parker Brown for assisting with field sampling; the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency for providing funding from the Minnesota Clean Water Council (grant number Swift 107988/PO3000016025); the City of Edina, Minnesota for funding the study of ponds F and G; the National Science Foundation (grant number 00039202) for funding the first author; LacCore, University of Minnesota for supporting sediment coring fieldwork; the Riley Purgatory Bluff Creek Watershed District (RPBCWD) for providing data collected by staff from Braun Intertec and David Austin (PI) and Roger Scharf (co-PI) of CH2M (now Jacobs) in a project funded by RPBCWD from 2010 to 2012; the Cities of Bloomington, Chanhassen, Eden Prairie, and Minnetonka for assisting with RPBCWD pond monitoring; the City of St. Cloud for providing additional monitoring data for pond A; and the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, and the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota?Twin Cities for providing facilities and resources to support the research. The authors also wish to thank Dr Patricia A. Soranno and the two anonymous reviewers for their extensive and detailed feedback that greatly improved the clarity and overall quality of this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors. Limnology and Oceanography Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography.

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