Background. Live, multivalent vaccines have historically exhibited interference in humans; live dengue virus (DENV) vaccines have proven no exception. Methods. To characterize interactions between DENV serotypes in a tetravalent live-attenuated virus vaccine candidate, we analyzed data from a factorial clinical trial in which all combinations of high- and low-dose DENV serotypes were combined in 16 live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine formulations (N 5 64) and administered to flavivirus-naive adult volunteers. Regression models considered the outcomes of reactogenicity and seroconversion, controlling for all serotype doses simultaneously. Additionally, results were compared against earlier evaluations of the same viruses administered as monovalent formulations. Results. DENV-1 was immunologically dominant in both monovalent and tetravalent formulations. In tetravalent formulations, DENV-1 and DENV-2 antagonized each other, with a high dose of one decreasing seroconversion to the other. However, high-dose DENV-1 significantly increased seroconversion against 3 or more serotypes, increasing seroconversion to DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4. The highest reactogenicity occurred when DENV-1 was at high dose and all others were low; reactogenicity decreased with the incorporation of other high-dose serotypes. Conclusions. Interference and facilitation occurred between serotypes in the live vaccine candidate evaluated. These analyses suggest that it may be possible to exploit facilitation to increase overall seroconversion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The clinical trials were funded by the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), Fort Detrick, Maryland, under a task order contract with the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, Baltimore. The analysis was supported by Dissertation Grant 1R36CK00104 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The opinions expressed in this manuscript do not necessarily represent the official views of the United States Department of Defense or the United States Department of the Army.