Interface dynamics at the impact of a drop onto a deep pool of immiscible liquid

Karan Dhuper, Sharey Deep Guleria, Parmod Kumar

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The present study investigates the impact of a droplet onto a deep pool of immiscible liquid for a wide range of drop impact Froude numbers (10 ≤ Fr ≤ 1075) to characterize the crater and jet dynamics. The radial expansion of the crater is followed by contraction of its sidewalls before the inception of vertical retraction at low drop impact Froude numbers (Fr ≤ 400), whereas the gravity-induced buoyant force of displaced liquid resulted in the simultaneous horizontal and vertical retraction of deeper cavities at high Froude numbers (Fr > 400). Four different jet regimes such as short jet, singular jet, slender jet, and compound thin thick jet are observed and their formation is associated with specific flow behaviors around the retracting crater. The short, singular, and slender jets are observed when retraction of the crater is capillary dominant. The compound thin thick jets are mainly attributed to gravity dominant deeper cavities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number116541
JournalChemical Engineering Science
StatePublished - Jun 29 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
PK acknowledges the financial support provided by IIT Mandi via project grant IITM/SG/PKU/67. KD acknowledges Subhav Chauhan and Rahul Kumar Mondal for their assistance in conducting experiments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Compound thin thick jet
  • Crater
  • Reverse jet
  • Short jet
  • Singular jet
  • Slender jet


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