Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT), idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) caused by donor cell alloreactivity remain major obstacles to a successful outcome. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an adhesion molecule that is involved in regulating lymphohematopoietic cell migration and facilitating T-cell responses. To determine whether ICAM-1 expression in the host would affect IPS or GVHD tissue injury responses, ICAM-1-/- mice were compared with ICAM-1+/+ controls. ICAM-1-/- recipients did not exhibit the manifestations of IPS injury such as an increase in lung weights nor decreased lung function. The influx of T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils was dramatically dampened as was the production of the inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor α and the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and lymphotactin, normally upregulated in the lung during IPS. In contrast, systemic levels of these mediators were unaffected and GVHD-induced lesions in the liver and colon did not differ in severity regardless of ICAM-1 expression. GVHD-mediated mortality was accelerated in ICAM-1-/- recipients at doses of allogeneic spleen cells that are otherwise not uniformally lethal. These data implicate ICAM-1 as playing a critical role in the generation of IPS; therefore, ICAM-1 may be a discerning element, segregating IPS from GVHD injury post-alloBMT.
- Allogeneic BMT
- Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome