The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the mediating role of intention in future weight training behavior (1-8 weeks) using an integrative framework [the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and self-efficacy theory (SET)]. Participants were 251 college students (M age = 21.36; 116 males, 135 females) enrolled in 16 weight training classes. The SET constructs (self-efficacy and incentive) and one TPB construct (intention) were assessed at midterm using standardized self-report questionnaires. Students' weight training behavior was assessed through their class attendance following the midterm week. The path analysis showed that intention had the largest direct effect on behavior followed by self-efficacy. Both self-efficacy and incentive significantly predicted intention. The overall variance in intention and behavior explained by the model was 17% and 31%, respectively. Health promoters and researchers need to identify strategies to increase self-efficacy and incentive (cross product of outcome expectancy and outcome value) and thus increase intention and behavior.
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