Intensifying Instruction to Meet Students’ Early Writing Needs

Elizabeth A. Lam, Amy K. Kunkel, Nicole M. McKevett, Kristen L. McMaster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With over 70% of fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-grade students in the United States scoring below proficiency levels in writing (NCES, 2009), teachers must provide early and effective writing intervention to accelerate students’ writing skills to meet grade-level standards. In this paper, we provide teachers with a theoretical framework to conceptualize the writing process, link evidenced-based writing interventions to each component of writing, and discuss how to create a writing instructional plan to individualize instruction. Then, we outline a data-based decision making process for intervention delivery. Our aim is to provide educators with steps to identify students’ writing needs, translate these needs into actionable teaching strategies, and accelerate writing progress for students who struggle to meet grade-level writing standards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTeaching Exceptional Children
StateAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s).


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