Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Our growing understanding of when and how placebos work, the degree to which they are genetically or environmentally (ie, contextually) amplified or diminished, and how they can be optimized has substantially altered the way we design current clinical trials and has garnered the attention of big pharma as well as insurers, both of whom now support research on methods to ethically and scientifically maximize placebo effects in an effort to improve patient outcomes and reduce toxicity from prescribed drugs (and other interventions). By 2021, the hunt for the “placebo gene or genes” is ongoing. This work, also begun through funding from the NIH, changed the way we view health, illness, responses to therapies, and the design of clinical trials. It is a true example of disruptive scientific discovery and innovation emanating from CAM/IM research, with implications for clinical and basic science research as well as medical education.
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