Memory-based and constructionist processes have both been proposed as essential components of the activation of concepts (e.g., propositions) and the establishment of meaningful connections between concepts during reading. In this article, we argue that a comprehensive theory of reading comprehension should include both sets of processes. In support of this view, we summarize the results of several studies that support the contribution of both processes during reading. In addition, we describe the conceptual framework of the Landscape Model, in which memory-based and constructionist processes are explicitly interconnected and dynamically interact in an account of reading comprehension.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Center for Cognitive Sciences at the University of Minnesota through Grant No. HD–07151 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, by the Guy Bond Endowment for Reading and Literacy, by a Golestan fellowship at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences to Paul van den Broek, by a Faculty Summer Research Fellowship from the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota to David N. Rapp, and by an Eva O. Miller Fellowship to Panayiota Kendeou. We thank Robert F. Lorch, Jr. for his comments on an earlier version of this article.