The remarkable enhancement of phenolic monomer generation and hydrogen was achieved through catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir over nanocellulose derived biochar catalyst for the first time. The main compositions of produced bio-oil were phenolic monomers, furans, and naphthalenes, etc., in which the phenolic monomers were dominant compositions. And at the temperature of 650 °C and 3 of biochar to biomass ratio, the quantification results showed that the concentration of phenol was increased to 53.77 mg/mL from 15.76 mg/mL of free of biochar catalyst. The concentration of cresols were facilitated to 44.51 mg/mL from 20.95 mg/mL, while the concentration of dimethylphenols reduced to 7.76 mg/mL from 9.11 mg/mL. Up to 85.32 vol% of hydrogen was observed, increasing from 45.53 vol% of the non-catalytic process. After 15 cycles of reuse, biochar catalysts still favored to produce a much higher concentration of phenolic monomers and hydrogen than that of absence of biochar catalysts.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by The Agriculture and Food Research Initiative of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture (Grant no. 2016-67021-24533 and 2018-67009-27904). We would like to thank Dr. Aftab Ahamed for the help with GC/MS analysis. And we also acknowledge Dr. Valerie Lynch-Holm and Dr. Dan Mullendore for the SEM training and analysis performed in Franceschi Microscopy & Imaging Center (FMIC) of Washington State University.
- Biochar catalyst
- Catalytic pyrolysis
- Phenolic monomers