Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies

Eun Lee Jung, Satu Männistö, Donna Spiegelman, David J. Hunter, Leslie Bernstein, Piet A. Van Den Brandt, Julie E. Buring, Eunyoung Cho, Dallas R. English, Andrew Flood, Jo L. Freudenheim, Graham G. Giles, Edward Giovannucci, Niclas Håkansson, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Eric J. Jacobs, Michael F. Leitzmann, James R. Marshall, Marjorie L. McCullough, Anthony B. MillerThomas E. Rohan, Julie A. Ross, Arthur Schatzkin, Leo J. Schouten, Jarmo Virtamo, Alicja Wolk, Shumin M. Zhang, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

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Abstract

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for α-carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1730-1739
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume18
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2009

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    Jung, E. L., Männistö, S., Spiegelman, D., Hunter, D. J., Bernstein, L., Van Den Brandt, P. A., Buring, J. E., Cho, E., English, D. R., Flood, A., Freudenheim, J. L., Giles, G. G., Giovannucci, E., Håkansson, N., Horn-Ross, P. L., Jacobs, E. J., Leitzmann, M. F., Marshall, J. R., McCullough, M. L., ... Smith-Warner, S. A. (2009). Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(6), 1730-1739. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0045