Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population

Xuanxia Mao, Cheng Chen, Pengcheng Xun, Martha L. Daviglus, Lyn M. Steffen, David R Jacobs Jr, Linda Van Horn, Stephen Sidney, Na Zhu, Bo Qin, Ka He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Vegetables and fruits (VF) may differentially affect cognitive functions, presumably due to their various nutrient contents, but evidence from epidemiologic studies is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term association between VF intakes, including VF subgroups, in young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife. Methods: A biracial cohort of 3231 men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline in 1985-1986 were followed up for 25 y in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diet was measured at baseline, and in examination years 7 and 20. Cognitive function was assessed at examination year 25 through the use of 3 tests: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Stroop test. The mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs in cognitive scores across intake categories were estimated through the use of the multivariable-adjusted general linear regression model. Results: Excluding potatoes, intake of whole vegetables was significantly associated with a better cognitive performance after adjustment for potential confounders in all 3 cognitive tests (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - RAVLT, MD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.64; P-trend = 0.08; DSST, MD: 2.84; 95% CI: 0.93, 4.75; P-trend < 0.01; Stroop test, MD: -2.87; 95% CI: -4.24, -1.50; P-trend < 0.01]. Similarly, intake of fruits, except fruit juices, was significantly related to a better cognitive performance (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - DSST, MD: 2.41; 95% CI: 0.70, 4.12; P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: This study supports the long-term benefits of VF consumption on cognitive performance, except those VF with relatively low fiber content such as potatoes and fruit juices, among the middle-aged US general population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1424-1433
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume149
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

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Vegetables
Cognition
Fruit
Population
Stroop Test
Verbal Learning
Solanum tuberosum
Linear Models
Epidemiologic Studies
Young Adult
Coronary Vessels
Diet
Food
Fruit and Vegetable Juices

Keywords

  • CARDIA study
  • cognitive function
  • dietary fiber
  • fruits
  • longitudinal study
  • vegetables

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Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population. / Mao, Xuanxia; Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs Jr, David R; Van Horn, Linda; Sidney, Stephen; Zhu, Na; Qin, Bo; He, Ka.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 149, No. 8, 01.08.2019, p. 1424-1433.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mao, X, Chen, C, Xun, P, Daviglus, ML, Steffen, LM, Jacobs Jr, DR, Van Horn, L, Sidney, S, Zhu, N, Qin, B & He, K 2019, 'Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population', Journal of Nutrition, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 1424-1433. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz076
Mao, Xuanxia ; Chen, Cheng ; Xun, Pengcheng ; Daviglus, Martha L. ; Steffen, Lyn M. ; Jacobs Jr, David R ; Van Horn, Linda ; Sidney, Stephen ; Zhu, Na ; Qin, Bo ; He, Ka. / Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 149, No. 8. pp. 1424-1433.
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title = "Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population",
abstract = "Background: Vegetables and fruits (VF) may differentially affect cognitive functions, presumably due to their various nutrient contents, but evidence from epidemiologic studies is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term association between VF intakes, including VF subgroups, in young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife. Methods: A biracial cohort of 3231 men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline in 1985-1986 were followed up for 25 y in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diet was measured at baseline, and in examination years 7 and 20. Cognitive function was assessed at examination year 25 through the use of 3 tests: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Stroop test. The mean differences (MDs) with 95{\%} CIs in cognitive scores across intake categories were estimated through the use of the multivariable-adjusted general linear regression model. Results: Excluding potatoes, intake of whole vegetables was significantly associated with a better cognitive performance after adjustment for potential confounders in all 3 cognitive tests (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - RAVLT, MD: 0.33; 95{\%} CI: 0.01, 0.64; P-trend = 0.08; DSST, MD: 2.84; 95{\%} CI: 0.93, 4.75; P-trend < 0.01; Stroop test, MD: -2.87; 95{\%} CI: -4.24, -1.50; P-trend < 0.01]. Similarly, intake of fruits, except fruit juices, was significantly related to a better cognitive performance (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - DSST, MD: 2.41; 95{\%} CI: 0.70, 4.12; P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: This study supports the long-term benefits of VF consumption on cognitive performance, except those VF with relatively low fiber content such as potatoes and fruit juices, among the middle-aged US general population.",
keywords = "CARDIA study, cognitive function, dietary fiber, fruits, longitudinal study, vegetables",
author = "Xuanxia Mao and Cheng Chen and Pengcheng Xun and Daviglus, {Martha L.} and Steffen, {Lyn M.} and {Jacobs Jr}, {David R} and {Van Horn}, Linda and Stephen Sidney and Na Zhu and Bo Qin and Ka He",
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T1 - Intake of vegetables and fruits through young adulthood is associated with better cognitive function in midlife in the US general population

AU - Mao, Xuanxia

AU - Chen, Cheng

AU - Xun, Pengcheng

AU - Daviglus, Martha L.

AU - Steffen, Lyn M.

AU - Jacobs Jr, David R

AU - Van Horn, Linda

AU - Sidney, Stephen

AU - Zhu, Na

AU - Qin, Bo

AU - He, Ka

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Background: Vegetables and fruits (VF) may differentially affect cognitive functions, presumably due to their various nutrient contents, but evidence from epidemiologic studies is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term association between VF intakes, including VF subgroups, in young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife. Methods: A biracial cohort of 3231 men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline in 1985-1986 were followed up for 25 y in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diet was measured at baseline, and in examination years 7 and 20. Cognitive function was assessed at examination year 25 through the use of 3 tests: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Stroop test. The mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs in cognitive scores across intake categories were estimated through the use of the multivariable-adjusted general linear regression model. Results: Excluding potatoes, intake of whole vegetables was significantly associated with a better cognitive performance after adjustment for potential confounders in all 3 cognitive tests (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - RAVLT, MD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.64; P-trend = 0.08; DSST, MD: 2.84; 95% CI: 0.93, 4.75; P-trend < 0.01; Stroop test, MD: -2.87; 95% CI: -4.24, -1.50; P-trend < 0.01]. Similarly, intake of fruits, except fruit juices, was significantly related to a better cognitive performance (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - DSST, MD: 2.41; 95% CI: 0.70, 4.12; P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: This study supports the long-term benefits of VF consumption on cognitive performance, except those VF with relatively low fiber content such as potatoes and fruit juices, among the middle-aged US general population.

AB - Background: Vegetables and fruits (VF) may differentially affect cognitive functions, presumably due to their various nutrient contents, but evidence from epidemiologic studies is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term association between VF intakes, including VF subgroups, in young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife. Methods: A biracial cohort of 3231 men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline in 1985-1986 were followed up for 25 y in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diet was measured at baseline, and in examination years 7 and 20. Cognitive function was assessed at examination year 25 through the use of 3 tests: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Stroop test. The mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs in cognitive scores across intake categories were estimated through the use of the multivariable-adjusted general linear regression model. Results: Excluding potatoes, intake of whole vegetables was significantly associated with a better cognitive performance after adjustment for potential confounders in all 3 cognitive tests (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - RAVLT, MD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.64; P-trend = 0.08; DSST, MD: 2.84; 95% CI: 0.93, 4.75; P-trend < 0.01; Stroop test, MD: -2.87; 95% CI: -4.24, -1.50; P-trend < 0.01]. Similarly, intake of fruits, except fruit juices, was significantly related to a better cognitive performance (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 - DSST, MD: 2.41; 95% CI: 0.70, 4.12; P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: This study supports the long-term benefits of VF consumption on cognitive performance, except those VF with relatively low fiber content such as potatoes and fruit juices, among the middle-aged US general population.

KW - CARDIA study

KW - cognitive function

KW - dietary fiber

KW - fruits

KW - longitudinal study

KW - vegetables

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