Insulin replacement: bionic or natural

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Optimal therapy for diabetic subjects using insulin has generally been considered synonymous with glucose control. Intensified subcutaneous insulin injections, based on dose modulation by four daily fingerstick glucose determinations, has provided near normalization of carbohydrate metabolism in short-term studies, but has been difficult to maintain on the long-term basis thought to be needed for prevention, retardation, or reversal of secondary diabetic complications. To this end, several therapeutic alternatives have been offered, including total or partial pancreas and/or islet transplantation; use of encapsulated islets and other hybrids; implantation of continuous and time-pulsed polymeric capsules; and insulin delivery from continuous or programmable flow pumps.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)806-812
Number of pages7
JournalASAIO Transactions
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1987


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