OBJECTIVE - Insulin and glucose levels in response to premeal insulin lispro or repaglinide were evaluated in adult patients with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) without fasting hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Seven patients with CFRD were fed 1,000-kcal liquid mixed meals. Three study conditions were administered in random order on separate mornings: 1) no premeal diabetes medication, 2) insulin lispro, 0.1 unit/kg body wt premeal and 3) repaglinide 1 mg premeal. Glucose and insulin levels were measured every 20 min for 5 h. RESULTS - Fasting insulin and glucose levels were normal in patients with CFRD, but the peak glucose level was elevated. Insulin lispro significantly decreased the peak glucose level (P = 0.0004) and the 2-h (P = 0.001) and 5-h (P < 0.0001) glucose area under the curve (AUC). Repaglinide significantly decreased the 5-h glucose AUC (P = 0.03). Neither drug completely normalized cystic fibrosis glucose excursion at the doses used for this study. Insulin lispro significantly increased the 5-h insulin AUC (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS -In response to subcutaneous insulin lispro, postprandial glucose excursion was significantly diminished and insulin secretion was enhanced compared with a control meal in which no medication was given to patients with CFRD. The oral agent repaglinide resulted in lesser corrections in these parameters. Neither drug completely normalized glucose or insulin levels, suggesting that the doses chosen for this study were suboptimal. Placebo-controlled longitudinal studies comparing the effectiveness of repaglinide and insulin on glucose metabolic control as well as overall nutrition and body weight are needed to help determine optimal medical treatment of CFRD.